Fish Farming in Nigeria ~ All to Know About the Business


One of the most lucrative business you can get into right is fish farming in Nigeria and i will tell you everything you need to know.

fish farming in nigeria

Ask around, this is one of those agribusinesses that actually moves the market in our country.

What Do We Mean By Fish Farming?

Fish farming is the act of rearing fish (any kind of fish) for commercial purpose.

Fish farming is also known as pisciculture. It means the act of feeding and rearing fish for commercial use.

In fish farming the kind of fish to rear and how to rear them are very important. Not all fish can be artificially reared, plus not all kind of fish are used for fish farming.

Getting an ideal kind of fish and how to succeed are all written in this article to help you start your business.

Fish farming isn’t like any other random business where the idea just comes to your mind, then you kick off and you starts a business. No, there are guidelines for you to follow.

How to Start Fish Farming in Nigeria

  • Get Trained
  • Best Fish for Commercial Purpose
  • Getting a Place
  • Good Source of Water
  • Fish Pond
  • Juveniles
  • Fish Feeds
  • Marketing the Fish

1.) Get Trained

Fish farming isn’t like any other random business where the idea just comes to your mind and then you kick off and starts a business.

Fish farming requires acquiring knowledge on fishes and how they can be reared for commercial purposes. You need to know.

2.) Best Fish for Commercial Purpose

Of course not all kind of fish can be used for business.

You need to know which kind of fish is appropriate to use in Nigeria.

You also need to know which kind of fish is mostly consumed by Nigerian consumers.

Well, Tilapia and catfish seems to be more consumed that any other kind of fish.

3.) Getting a Place for your Fish

Buying a land and building a large pond for your fish may not be necessary.

Depending on what you want and how you intend to start your farming, you may just need to get a small space or place like your backyard, or a small fish pond in a good place.

Also, the numbers of fish you hope to start with can help you decide an adequate location for your fish.

4.) A Good Source of Water

Water is a major determinant of the growth and health of your fish.

Getting a good water source is very important. You should also note that not all available water can be used on your fish.

For example, treated water is totally out of place.

Why? You may want to ask. The water is treated with chemicals. These chemicals are very poisonous to the fish. You may lose all your fish if you intend using treated water.

Your source of water will be determined by the size of fish farm your intend to have.

If the size of your farm is going to be small then building your pond beside a well will be good.

But if you intend building a large pond probably in a vacant land or a spacious environment then you will need to create a borehole or use water tank.

This will create adequate supply of water for your fishes. Water is oxygen for your fish.

5.) Fish Pond

For your fish, you will need to build or construct a fish pond. Fish pond is where your fish are kept and reared.

Depending on the number and size of your fish, your fish pond can either be large or small. If you are getting a large place for your fish, then you will consider building a big fish pond.

In constructing a fish pond you may need the assistance of an expert pond construction engineer.

But if you intend to go for a small fish pond, I will advice you go for plastic tank.

But if you intend constructing a pond, your cost for such construction depends on the size of fish pond you want to construct. A fish pond varies in sizes.

6.) Your Fish Species

Like I said earlier, you need to know what kind of species you will need for your fish farming because of our climate catfish and tilapia would be a good idea especially when they are mostly consumed.

7.) Juveniles

Juveniles are small fishes that you will need to grow. Fishes grow in stages, those stages starts from the

a.) Fry stage: This stage is at an age less than a week.

b.) Fingering: This stage is the development stage right after the fry stage. It goes into the first three – four months of fish life. Following the fingering stage, we also have.

c.) Yearling: This is the development stage following the fingering and it’s approximately one year.

This development stage is also known as Juvenile. To get juvenile, you will need consult fish farmers who specialize in hatching fingerlings and selling juveniles.

Also make sure you get a healthy juvenile, check out for weak ones.

8.) Fish Feeds

As humans eat food for growth and survival so do fishes. Getting a good feed for you fish requires knowing the kinds of feeds to use and the means of feeding your fishes.

There are different means to feed your fishes. However, any one can be substituted from time to time.

The various means are:

a.) Natural fish feed: As the name goes, this feed is naturally found in the pond. Fish can feed on fish for food.

But in the pond other kinds of elements of feed are worms, insects, bacterial, detritus, plankton, aquatic plants, or snails. The fishes feed on these supplements for survival.

b.) Supplement fish feed: This is another kind of supplements fish feed on by this type of fish feed is provided by the fish farmer usually cheap materials that are locally available from kitchen waste or terrestrial plants.

Many fish farmers commonly use this means of feed for their fishes. Yet, it is not beneficial for anyone who wants to grow his fish farming business. Then we also have:

c.) Complete feed: Complete feed is a made feed especially for fish. They contain adequate ingredients and nutrients for your fish.

The costs of complete feed depend on the area where you are so price may not be part of this list as a price varies by your environment.

9.) Marketing Your Fishes

The idea of marketing your fishes should come before your fishes are ready for sale.

You really don’t have to wait until they are grown and ready before you start marketing your fishes.

Device a means of marketing your product before they even get to the market. And don’t have the idea or think that the market is already there.

You may get disappointed, so that marketing your fishes.

10.) Be Focus

Fish farming business is a business with so many competitors in Nigeria now. If you wish to succeed in your business, you need to be serious and focused.

There are many benefits as well as challenges in rearing fishes. Some of these benefits include:

In growth, fish grows faster. This enables the farmer to always make quick sales.

Don’t forget that fish is very popular and contains high source of protein. It is also rich in calcium, iron, iodine, phosphorus, zinc, potassium, and magnesium.

Another great benefit of fish farming is that it is very profitable. Many fish farmer’s reports very high profit that they make from their fish farming business.

Based on environment pollution, fish farming do not pollute the environment as poultry and piggery farming does.

Having highlighted some benefits of fish farming it’s also necessary that you analyze some of the challenges you may encounter in your business. These challenges are: Fishes are very sensitive to manage.

Any slight mistake may cause havoc and tremendous loss of your fishes. Another major challenge is the capital of starting a fish farm business.

The cost is high, a minimum of N500,000 will be needed to start a small fish business plus no byproduct in fish.

Byproduct means other things that can be used to earn money from the fishes. Unlike poultry and piggery farming where their droppings can be sold. Fish has no byproduct.

Having analyzed some benefits and challenges in this business, you will agree with me that staying focused and seriousness is extremely needed.

11.) A Mentor Is Needed

Mentor is a person you admire and hope to be like.

This mentor teaches you important things and helps you need in some areas where it is needed or necessary. This mentor can be male or female.

In fish farming, I will advise you to get a mentor.

This mentor can be a person where you got trained for this business for those who will consider training.

But if you didn’t go for training, it is advisable you get acquainted with an expert fish farmer.

This fish farmer helps to motivate you and encourages you when challenges occur. They also teach you some fundamental skills you need to apply in your business.

They can help you in buying a healthy juveniles and getting appropriate feeds for your fish, get acquainted with an expert.

You can also as well attend seminars on fish farming to improve your business. You need to acquire all informations you need to stay successful. You may also have more than one mentor.

Final Note

Fish farming in Nigeria is not a small business. It requires capital, attention and carefulness.

Fishes are very delicate unlike poultry; you can’t handle them as you please, use you lose everything.

Even though it is one of the profitable businesses in Nigeria, you need to approach it with seriousness.

Another important thing to learn in fishery is their Kg, weight and price. Fishes are sold according to their prices.

That is why you need a mentor to guide you. I do hope that in this article, you are able to gather enough information you require to start your business.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

10 − 5 =